100TPC Read a Poem to a Child Compilation & Curriculum; U.S. Library of Congress Literacy Awards

POETRY IS GOOD FOR DEVELOPMENTAL LEARNING In child education, children’s verbal and written skills are somewhat underdeveloped. Poetry helps by teaching in rhythm, stringing words together with a beat helps cognitive understanding of words and where they fit. Additionally, it teaches children the art of creative expression, which most found highly lacking in the new-age educational landscape. In essence, poetry gives them a great tool for developing one’s self.” MORE Robert Lee Brewer, Senior Editor of Writers’ Digest


September 23rd – September 28th 2019

The compilation and curriculum are the result of a collaboration among 100,000 Poets for Change, Florida State University, and Reading Is Fundamental with selections from The John MacKay Shaw Childhood in Poetry Collection of Florida State University Libraries Special Collections and Archives.

Download the Poetry Compilation for Readers.pdf

Download the curriculum Simple ways to make poetry engaging 2.0  and the poetry workbook.

Freely accessible Sound Cloud playlist of 100TPC Read a Poem to a Child Initiative

“As centuries of dictators have known, an illiterate crowd is the easiest to rule; since the craft of reading cannot be untaught once it has been acquired, the second-best recourse is to limit its scope.”  Alberto Manguel, A History of Reading

Three organizations working to expand literacy and promote reading in the United States and worldwide will be awarded the 2019 Library of Congress Literacy Awards at the National Book Festival gala, Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden announced yesterday.

Hayden and philanthropist David M. Rubenstein will award the top prizes to: ProLiteracy Worldwide of Syracuse, New York; American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults of Baltimore; and ConTextos of Chicago.

David M. Rubenstein

The Literacy Awards, originated by Rubenstein in 2013, honor organizations doing exemplary, innovative and replicable work. They spotlight the need for communities worldwide to unite in working for universal literacy.

“Literacy is the ticket to learning, opportunity and empowerment on a global scale,” said Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden. “Through the generosity of David M. Rubenstein, the Library of Congress is proud to honor and celebrate the achievements of these extraordinary organizations in their efforts to advance reading levels and give people the foundation for a better life.”

Prizes and Recipients

David M. Rubenstein Prize ($150,000): ProLiteracy Worldwide, Syracuse, New York
ProLiteracy Worldwide advances and supports programs to help adults acquire literacy skills needed to function more effectively in their daily lives. It has 1,000 member programs across 50 states and works with 30 partners in 25 countries to provide a wide range of adult literacy and basic education services to vulnerable populations. ProLiteracy builds capacity among frontline literacy providers by modeling proven instructional approaches, developing affordable, evidence-based learning resources, and providing professional development and technical assistance. ProLiteracy was formed by the 2002 merger of Laubach Literacy International (founded in 1955) and Literacy Volunteers of America (founded in 1962). For more than 60 years, ProLiteracy has scaled successful practices and driven advocacy efforts by activating its grassroots network, resulting in a broad and sustained effort to improve and advance adult literacy at the community level.

American Prize ($50,000): American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults, Baltimore
Established in 1919, the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults is a service agency that assists blind and deaf-blind persons in securing reading matter, educates the public about blindness, provides specialized aids and appliances to the blind, gives consultation to governmental and private agencies serving the blind, offers assistance to those losing vision in their later years, offers services to blind children and their parents, and works toward improving the quality of life for the blind and deaf-blind. This includes services such as free braille books, free braille calendars and free white canes. Central to the organization’s work has been a commitment to braille literacy and the knowledge that braille is the only true means for literacy for the blind.

International Prize ($50,000): ConTextos, Chicago
ConTextos brings literacy to schools, prisons and communities in El Salvador via two programs: Soy Lector (I’m a Reader) and Soy Autor (I’m an author). The Soy Lector Program trains local community members and teachers to develop libraries to encourage reading and the discussion of ideas in the community and schools. The Soy Autor Program encourages youth affected by violence to write their memoirs. Through this writing exercise, they work through the effect that violence has had on their life, either as a victim or perpetrator. In the process, participants develop critical literacy skills. The program has been replicated in Guatemala and Honduras and continues to grow. To date, ConTextos has created 84 libraries across El Salvador; 11,092 students have access to high-quality books; and 853 young authors have published their memoirs.

The Library of Congress Literacy Awards Program is also honoring 15 organizations for their implementation of best practices in literacy promotion. These best practice honorees are:

  • Bring Me a Book, Redwood City, California
  • The Conscious Connect, Springfield, Ohio
  • Friends of Matènwa, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Hartford Public Library, Hartford, Connecticut
  • The Jane Stern Dorado Community Library, Dorado, Puerto Rico
  • Literacy for Incarcerated Teens, New York City
  • LitWorld International Inc., New York City
  • Meridian Library District, Meridian, Idaho
  • Nal’ibali Trust, Cape Town, South Africa
  • One World Education, Washington, D.C.
  • The PEN/Faulkner Foundation, Washington, D.C.
  • Razia’s Ray of Hope, Wellesley, Massachusetts
  • Ready for Reading, Dorset, Vermont
  • Riecken Community Libraries, Washington, D.C.
  • Western Massachusetts Writing Project, Amherst, Massachusetts

David M. Rubenstein is the co-founder and co-executive chairman of The Carlyle Group. He is a major benefactor of the Library of Congress and the chairman of the Library’s lead donor group, the James Madison Council. More information on the awards is available at read.gov/literacyawards.

The Library of Congress is the world’s largest library, offering access to the creative record of the United States — and extensive materials from around the world — both on-site and online. It is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office. Explore collections, reference services and other programs and plan a visit at loc.gov; access the official site for U.S. federal legislative information at congress.gov; and register creative works of authorship at copyright.gov.


Jamie Dedes. I’m a Lebanese-American freelance writer, poet, content editor, blogger and the mother of a world-class actor and mother-in-law of a stellar writer/photographer. No grandchildren, but my grandkitty, Dahlia, rocks big time. I am hopelessly in love with nature and all her creatures. In another lifetime, I was a columnist, a publicist, and an associate editor to a regional employment publication. I’ve had to reinvent myself to accommodate scarred lungs, pulmonary hypertension, right-sided heart failure, connective tissue disease, and a rare managed but incurable blood cancer. The gift in this is time for my primary love: literature. I study/read/write from a comfy bed where I’ve carved out a busy life writing feature articles, short stories, and poetry and managing The BeZine and its associated activities and The Poet by Day jamiededes.com, an info hub for writers meant to encourage good but lesser-known poets, women and minority poets, outsider artists, and artists just finding their voices in maturity. The Poet by Day is dedicated to supporting freedom of artistic expression and human rights.  Email thepoetbyday@gmail.com for permissions, commissions, or assignments.

Testimonials / Disclosure / Facebook

Recent and Upcoming in Digital Publications * The Damask Garden, In a Woman’s Voice, August 11, 2019 / This short story is dedicated to all refugees. That would be one in every 113 people. * Five poems, Spirit of Nature, Opa Anthology of Poetry, 2019 * From the Small Beginning, Entropy Magazine (Enclave, #Final Poems), July 2019 * Over His Morning Coffee, Front Porch Review, July 2019 * Three poems, Our Poetry Archive, September 2019

“Every pair of eyes facing you has probably experienced something you could not endure.”  Lucille Clifton

To write a peace poem … A virtual lesson for children from Michael Dickel to honor 100,000 Poets (and Friends) for Change …


“Poetry. It’s better than war!”Michael Rothenberg, cofounder of 100,000 Poets (and friends) for Change

Introduction for grownups

This year, 100,000 Poets for Change promoted its newest initiative, Read a Poem to a Child! Poets all over the world have visited schools, community centers, libraries, and living rooms to read poetry to children.

As a supplement to this amazing sharing of poetry (and stories, music, art), I am sharing this updated and revised exercise. In 2013, I originally developed this exercise for some poetry workshops geared to upper-elementary school children in English language classes at The Jerusalem School of Beit Hanina, in East Jerusalem. The school’s motto is “Peace begins with me,” also the name of a poetry anthology for children. My workshops coincided with Peace Days at the school. This version is modified here for the blog and a different audience.

Please feel free to use this exercise with children you know or work with, and to modify it to your needs. I ask only that you give me credit for it and include the credits for the poems, if you use them.

– Michael Dickel (Meta/ Phor(e) /Play)

Introduction for everybody

There are some words a poet might call “big.” They are not long words, with lots of letters. However, they are “big” because when you say them or when you read them, they hold a lot of things in them or a large, important meaning.

Now, if a word is very big, a poet may not want to use it in the poem at all. The whole poem may be about this very big word. If I put the word in my poem, though, it could break the poem. A person reading it would not know exactly what I meant by it. Or a person may mean one of the other things the word could mean.

Peace can be a very big word like that. We can all say we want peace. Every person might make a wish like this: “May Peace prevail on Earth.” (When something “prevails,” it wins, it is everywhere and leads everything.) Yet, the poet asks, “What do I mean by peace? What exactly is this peace I want?”

Poets can write about a big word like peace though, if they ask questions about it. They write about the answers they find. They do not always use the word “peace” when they do.

Let’s try to write a poem now, about peace. But don’t use the word peace!

Instead, ask some questions about peace, and write your answers down.

What kind of questions do poets ask?

Some of the questions poets ask have to do with the senses. Others have to do with places, or people, or things.

Below are some questions a poet might ask. They are here to help you write a poem about peace. You can ask your own questions, too.

Write down some answers to these questions (or your own, or both). You can make a list of words or phrases, write a sentence, a paragraph, a story, or a piece of a poem…

But you don’t have to write the whole poem. You will do that after answering the questions.

Some questions to help you start:

1. What does peace look like? Is there a place that you go to or have gone to where you can see peace? Where the view looks like peace?

2. What would peace feel like, if you could touch it? Is there something you touch that feels like peace to you?

3. What does peace sound like? Is there a sound you hear every day or just sometimes that sounds like peace for you?

4 What about a taste? What would peace taste like ? Do you eat anything that tastes like peace?

5. What would peace smell like? Do you ever smell peace? What other things might smell like peace?

Some more questions

Your answers from the questions you just answered can help you answer some of these questions. Or, write new answers.

Imagine someone who doesn’t know what peace is. Try to describe peace to this person as though it is an object in the world.

What does it look like?

What does it sound like?

What does it smell like?

What does it taste like?

And, what does it feel like?

Imagine someone else who doesn’t know what peace is. Try to describe peace as something people do.

Who does it?

What do they do?

Where do they do it?

When do they do it?

Why do they do it?

How do they do it?

What do they look like doing it?

What do they sound like?

Write your own poem

Look over all of your answers. Can you think of other things to write to say more about your answers? Do you have other questions that you want to ask about peace?

Do some of your answers help you think of a poem to write?

Are some of your answers fun? Funny?

Do some excite you?

Do some seem very true to you?

Do the answers to one question seem connected to the answers to another one?

Now write down a poem. You can change it as you go. You can change it after it is all written down the first time, too.

Your poem can rhyme, but it doesn’t have to. The lines of a poem are usually short, but you can also write them longer. Usually, they are not really, really long.

Try it now!


Michael Dickel (c) 2018, Photo credit Zaki Qutteineh

MICHAEL DICKEL a poet, fiction writer, and photographer, has taught at various colleges and universities in Israel and the United States. Dickel’s writing, art, and photographs appear in print and online. His poetry has won international awards and been translated into several languages. His chapbook, Breakfast at the End of Capitalism came out from Locofo Chaps in 2017. Is a Rose Press released his most recent full-length book (flash fiction), The Palm Reading after The Toad’s Garden, in 2016. Previous books: War Surrounds Us, Midwest / Mid-East, and The World Behind It, Chaos… He co-edited Voices Israel Volume 36(2010). He was managing editor for arc-23 and arc-24. With producer / director David Fisher, he received an NEH grant to write a film script about Yiddish theatre. He is the former chair of the Israel Association of Writers in English. Meta/ Phor(e) /Play is Michael’s blogZine. Michael on Social Media: Twitter | FaceBook Page | Instagram | Academia


Poet and writer, I was once columnist and associate editor of a regional employment publication. Currently I run this site, The Poet by Day, an information hub for poets and writers. I am the managing editor of The BeZine published by The Bardo Group Beguines (originally The Bardo Group), a virtual arts collective I founded.  I am a weekly contributor to Beguine Again, a site showcasing spiritual writers.

My work is featured in a variety of publications and on sites, including: Levure littéraure, Ramingo’s PorchVita Brevis Literature,Compass Rose, Connotation PressThe Bar None GroupSalamander CoveSecond LightI Am Not a Silent PoetMeta / Phor(e) /Play, and California Woman.

100TPC: Heads-up Cities Around the World, The Love of Peace, Sustainability and Social Justice Is Viral; and, Banned Book Week

“Poetry. It’s better than war!” Michael Rothenberg, cofounder of 100,000 Poets (and friends) for Change

The slide show below displays some of the posters for 100TPC events happening in different parts of the world. To find something in your area check 100tpc.org or Michael Rothenberg’s 100,000 Poets for Change Communication Hub. I’ve also been trying to track the events and post links to them on The Poet by Day Facebook Page. The Zine is an online event, so you can go to an event in your area and still participate in The BeZine‘s virtual 100TPC on Saturday, September 29th.

Over 2,000 groups and individuals have signed-up to read poems to children (part of 100TPC Global 2018) from September 24-29.

If you are reading this post from an email subscription, you’ll likely have to click through to this site to view the slide show.

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Sukkah Salon
Public · Hosted by Jerusalism.

This 100TPC event is hosted by our own Michael Dickel (Meta/ Phor(3) /Play) and his friends.

Our poster for 100TPC 2018. It was designed by Corina Ravenscraft (Dragon’s Dreams)


Michael Dickel is also the Master of Ceremonies for The BeZine Virtual 100TPC event, Sept 29. Join with us on Saturday and support this great global effort, read some fine work, share your poetry and other art, and meet poets and other artists who share your values and concerns.

Banned Books Week: Banning Books Silences Stories,  Sept. 23 – 29, 2018

By focusing on efforts across the country to remove or restrict access to books, Banned Books Week draws national attention to the harms of censorship. The books featured during Banned Books Week have all been targeted with removal or restrictions in libraries and schools. While books have been and continue to be banned, part of the Banned Books Week celebration is the fact that, in a majority of cases, the books have remained available. This happens only thanks to the efforts of librarians, teachers, students, and community members who stand up and speak out for the freedom to read. Banned Books Week is an annual event celebrating the freedom to read. Typically held during the last week of September, it highlights the value of free and open access to information. Banned Books Week brings together the entire book community – librarians, booksellers, publishers, journalists, teachers, and readers of all types – in shared support of the freedom to seek and to express ideas, even those some consider unorthodox or unpopular.

About Book Bans and Challenges
Books are still being banned and challenged today. A challenge is an attempt to remove or restrict materials, based upon the objections of a person or group. A banning is the removal of those materials.

While books have been and continue to be banned, part of the Banned Books Week celebration is the fact that, in a majority of cases, the books have remained available. This happens only thanks to the efforts of librarians, teachers, students, and community members who stand up and speak out for the freedom to read.

–  Frequently Challenged Books

–  Top 10 Challenged Books

American Library Association


Poet and writer, I was once columnist and associate editor of a regional employment publication. Currently I run this site, The Poet by Day, an information hub for poets and writers. I am the managing editor of The BeZine published by The Bardo Group Beguines (originally The Bardo Group), a virtual arts collective I founded.  I am a weekly contributor to Beguine Again, a site showcasing spiritual writers.

My work is featured in a variety of publications and on sites, including: Levure littéraure, Ramingo’s PorchVita Brevis Literature,Compass Rose, Connotation PressThe Bar None GroupSalamander CoveSecond LightI Am Not a Silent PoetMeta / Phor(e) /Play, and California Woman.

SUNDAY ANNOUNCEMENTS: Calls for Submissions, Competitions, and Other Information and News

Bob Seger Dedes I just adopted Bob from Muttville (recommended), a senior dog rescue in San Francisco. Bob weighs 4.74 pounds. He is thirteen years old. 91 years is the human equivalent. He is blind, deaf, has heart disease, a tad bit of incontinence, arthritis, and is missing almost all his teeth. The remaining teeth are to be pulled soon. He loves gumming chicken giblets. Bob fits in well with the rest of the senior community here where I live. 🙂 His care is slowing down The Poet by Day production, but I hope you’ll understand and bare with me. I’m buying him some time, comfort and love. I support and adopt from Muttville because they keep elder dogs from being euthanized prematurely. They rock big time.

“Dogs do speak, but only to those who know how to listen.”Orhan Pamuk,My Name is Red … Bob speaks to us of patience, acceptance, trust and unconditional love. / J.D.

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Opportunity Knocks

CYBERWIT.NET is a collaborative effort that is the host of: Taj Mahal Review, Harvests of the New Millennium, Anthologies, and Stories. Based in India it also has a team in the U.S. and is interested in poets and writers writing in English. It’s new to me but looks like a rich resource for writers and readers. Check it out cyberwit.net.

Little Patuxent Review, Exploring Literature and the Arts will close for submissions on October 24, 2018. The next issue is unthemed, but “half the issue is dedicated to LGBTQI= writers in Maryland. This is a “community-based publication focused on writers and artists from the Mid-Atlantic region, but all excellent work originating in the United States will be considered.” No submission fees. No payment except for a copy of the issue in which your work is featured. Publishes poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction and essays. Details HERE.

LIVE NUDE POEMS is an online journal. The editors say, “In trying to sum up what our aesthetic at Live Nude Poems will be, we are drawn to the idea and function of poetry.  In our opinion, we’ve always believed that poetry must serve a purpose – to enlighten, to explain and by doing so, bring a greater understanding of self.  We have a job to do as poets, even if only to better know our own humanity.  We’re certainly not here to argue what art is or why we write.  We write because we have to, and the work is unique to each of us.  Knowing that, we would like to showcase poetry that breathes and presents moments in time, work that helps us understand you, tells a story, changes the reader–if only for a second.”  Details HERE and HERE

MAGNUM OPUS: An International Poetry Anthology is expected to be published in 2019 and the deadline for submissions is 31 December 2018.  Editor: Dr. Vivekanand Jha  Details HERE.

RATTLE publishes poetry and translations of poetry and is open for submissions year round. Does not accept previously published work. There is no submission fee. Rattle is  currently seeking submissions from Persona Poems (i.e., the speaker is someone other than the poet) for the Spring 2019 issue. Deadline: October 15. Details HERE.

SARANAC REVIEW is open for submissions to a special section of its 15th Anniversary issue. The section is titled “The Wild” and the deadline is December 31, 2018.  Submissions of drama, fiction, nonfiction and poetry are open through May 31, 2019. Submissions: $3 each. Details HERE and HERE.

WEST TRADE REVIEW is open for submissions of poetry and prose for its Spring 2019 issue through January 1, 2019. Details HERE.


The BeZine

Call for submissions for the December issue.

THE BeZINE, Be Inspired, Be Creative, Be Peace, Be. Submissions for the December issue – themed A Life of the Spirit – close on November 10 at 11:59 p.m. Pacific .


Please send text in the body of the email not as an attachment. Send photographs or illustrations as attachments. No google docs or Dropbox or other such. No rich text. Send submissions to bardogroup@gmail.com.

Publication is December 15th. Poetry, essays, fiction and creative nonfiction, art and photography, music (videos or essays), and whatever lends itself to online presentation is welcome for consideration.

No demographic restrictions.

Please read at least one issue. We DO NOT publish anything that promotes hate, divisiveness or violence or that is scornful or in any way dismissive of “other” peoples. 

  • December 2018 issue, Deadline November 10th, Theme: A Life of the Spirit

The BeZine is an entirely volunteer effort, a mission. It is not a paying market but neither does it charge submission or subscription fees.

Previously published work may be submitted IF you hold the copyright. Submissions from beginning and emerging artists as well as pro are encouraged and we have a special interest in getting more submissions of short stores, feature articles, music videos and art for consideration. 


Opportunity Knocks

I have no new competitions to report this week; however, if you check some recent Sunday Announcements, I think you’ll find some shared in the last few weeks are still open.


The Poet by Day


Response deadline is Monday, September 24, at 8 p.m. Pacific.  Poems are on theme are published on this site on Tuesday, the September 25. Details HERE.

DON’T FORGET ON SEPTEMBER 29 as part of 100,000 Poets (and friends) for Change Global 2018

artwork courtesy of Corina Ravenscraft (Dragon’s Dreams)

AND DO VISIT US AT THE BeZINE ON SEPTEMBER 29 for our Virtual 100TPC with our world-class Master of Ceremonies, Michael Dickel (Meta / Phor (e) Play). If you are in Israel or going to be there for Sukot, please connect with Michael for 100TPC at Sukot.


  • DeWITT CLINTON for the publication to At the End of War (Kelsay Books). DeWitt just sent me a copy and it’s stellar.  Look or more on DeWitt [and other recently published poets] in upcoming posts. Meanwhile here’s what one reviewer said, “In DeWitt Clinton’s newest volume of poetry, he writes elegies to the past and present, poems that are lovely and compelling, but “always humble, always/ written in memory.” In sometimes long lyric-narratives, he interprets Biblical stories and honors the Holocaust, artists, and other poets, often in poems written in another’s voice, which allows readers another perspective.  These are poems of searching and discovery, of consequences and coming-to-terms, of family, friendship, connections – some strong, some tentative. He writers, “Perhaps that’s all we can do – wonder and wonder some more.”  Karla Huston, Wisconsin Poet Laureate 2017-2018
  • CLARISSA SIMMENS (poeturja.wordpress.com) for two of poems accepted for the  upcoming TL;DR Press women writer’s anthology schedule for publication at the end of September.  To learn more, see their announcement on their blog at: http://tldrpress.org/index.php/2018/09/17/tldr-press-announces-the-womens-anthology-lineup/  [Thanks to Denise – Poetry Curator – for the heads up on this.]

Accessible anytime from anywhere in the world:

The Poet by Day always available online with poems, poets and writers, news and information.

The Poet by Day, Wednesday Writing Prompt, online every week (except for vacation) and all are invited to take part no matter the stage of career or status. Poems related to the challenge of the week (always theme based not form based) will be published here on the following Tuesday.

The Poet by Day, Sunday Announcements. Every week (except for vacation) opportunity knocks for poets and writers. Due to other weekend commitments, this post will often go up late.

THE BeZINE, Be Inspired, Be Creative, Be Peace, Be – always online HERE.  

Beguine Again, daily inspiration and spiritual practice  – always online HERE.  Beguine Again is the sister site to The BeZine.

YOUR SUNDAY ANNOUNCEMENTS may be emailed to thepoetbyday@gmail.com. Please do so at least a week in advance.

If you would like me to consider reviewing your book, chapbook, magazine or film, here are some general guidelines:

  • send PDF to jamiededes@gmail.com (Note: I have a backlog of six or seven months, so at this writing I suggest you wait until June 2018 to forward anything.Thank you!)
  • nothing that foments hate or misunderstanding
  • nothing violent or encouraging of violence
  • English only, though Spanish is okay if accompanied by translation
  • your book or other product  should be easy for readers to find through your site or other venues.



PLEASE do not mix the communications between the two emails.

Often information is just thatinformation– and not necessarily recommendation. I haven’t worked with all the publications or other organizations featured in my regular Sunday Announcements or other announcements shared on this site. Awards and contests are often (generally) a means to generate income, publicity and marketing mailing lists for the host organizations, some of which are more reputable than others. I rarely attend events anymore. Caveat Emptor: Please be sure to verify information for yourself before submitting work, buying products, paying fees or attending events et al.






Poet and writer, I was once columnist and associate editor of a regional employment publication. I currently run this site, The Poet by Day, an information hub for poets and writers. I am the managing editor of The BeZine published by The Bardo Group Beguines (originally The Bardo Group), a virtual arts collective I founded.  I am a weekly contributor to Beguine Again, a site showcasing spiritual writers. My work is featured in a variety of publications and on sites, including: Levure littéraure, Ramingo’s PorchVita Brevis Literature,Compass Rose, Connotation PressThe Bar None GroupSalamander CoveSecond LightI Am Not a Silent PoetMeta / Phor(e) /Play, and California Woman. My poetry was recently read by Northern California actor Richard Lingua for Poetry Woodshed, Belfast Community Radio. I was featured in a lengthy interview on the Creative Nexus Radio Show where I was dubbed “Poetry Champion.”

* The BeZine: Waging the Peace, An Interfaith Exploration featuring Fr. Daniel Sormani, Rev. Benjamin Meyers, and the Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi among others

“Every pair of eyes facing you has probably experienced something you could not endure.” Lucille Clifton